Optoelectronic devices control, generate, detect, and harness the power of light. These devices rely on the interaction of light with electronic components and materials to emit, detect, or manipulate light in different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Optoelectronics work with visible, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths of light to perform an array of tasks.

Common photoelectronic devices include LEDs, photodiodes, lasers, photodetectors, and optical fibers. Some devices emit light (e.g., light bulbs), sense light (e.g., photodiodes and photoresistors), transmit light (e.g., fiber optic cables), or respond to light like optoisolators and phototransistors.

Optical fibers are made of thin strands of glass or plastic that act as waveguides for transmitting laser signals over long distances with minimal loss of signal strength; they have replaced copper wire in many high-speed data transmission applications due to their superior performance characteristics.

LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) convert electrical energy into visible light and can be tuned to emit light at different wavelengths to brighten up a space or for fiber-optic communication systems. Photodiodes work in reverse. They detect incoming light and generate an output current proportional to the amount of light detected. Lasers produce narrow beams of coherent monochromatic light using a process called "stimulated emission" rather than electrical conduction.


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