Filters are devices that allow certain frequencies to pass through while stopping or suppressing others. They are used to enhance desired signals and reduce unwanted noise in electrical signals to improve signal processing. There are four basic types of filters: low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, and band-stop.

Low-Pass filters allow lower frequency signals to pass while blocking higher frequencies. High-pass filters, by contrast, allow higher frequencies to pass while blocking lower frequencies. Band-Pass filters allow only a certain range of frequencies within a certain bandwidth to pass, while Band-Stop filters block only certain range of frequencies.

Filters can also be categorized as either passive or active components. Passive filters are made up of capacitors, resistors and even inductors connected together. Active filters are made of combinations of passive components (such as capacitors and resistors) as well as active components (like transistors or amplifiers) for more flexibility.


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